Descriptive Text : Definition, Generic Structures, Language Characteristics and Examples

Pengertian Descriptive Text

Descriptive text adalah salah satu jenis teks dalam Bahasa Inggris yang mempunyai tujuan untuk menjelaskan atau mendeskripsikan kepada pembaca suatu benda atau makhluk hidup, seperti orang, binatang, ataupun tempat. Biasanya, yang dijelaskan dari benda tersebut adalah bentuk, ciri, ataupun sifat lainnya.

Struktur Descriptive Text

Dalam membuat suatu text pasti kita harus tau, apa saja yang harus ditulis beserta urutannya.

Identification: Langkah pertama dalam membuat teks deskripsi adalah pengenalan objek dari apa yang ingin dijelaskan atau deskripsikan.

Description: Penjelasan utama ciri-ciri objek yang spesifik yang ingin disampaikan, misalnya tentang tampilan fisik, tekstur, sifat-sifat psikologis dan lain-lain yang jelas mendeskripsikan objek tersebut.

Language Characteristics of Descriptive Text:

  • Noun: kata benda, kata benda disini adalah kata benda yang spesifik, misalnya my best friend, my cat, prambanan temple, dan lain-lain. Selain itu, terkadang juga menggunakan kata benda yang mendapat pemberian kata sifat, misalnya an intelligent people dan a large  garden.
  • Simple present tense: menggunakan kata kerja bentuk pertama (verb1) dan juga kata kerja yang dapat menggambarkan keadaan objek atau mengisyaratkan kepemilikan, misalnya my house has 2 bedrooms, Hailey is beautiful, dan lain-lain.
  • Action verbs : kata kerja yang menunjukkan sebuah kegiatan (aktifitasnya bisa dilihat) misalnya : run, sleep, eat, walk dll.
  • Adjective: kata sifat digunakan untuk menjelaskan objek.
  • Penggunaan simple present tense : Pola kalimat yang digunakan adalah simple present karena menceritakan fakta dari obyek deskripsi.
  • Figurative language: menggunakan bahasa figuratif seperti simile atau metafora sebagai cara untuk memberikan ilustrasi perbandingan, misalnya:

          My throat is as dry as a dessert (tenggorokanku sekering gurun).

         Her skin is as white as cloud and smooth as water (kulitnya seputih awan dan selembut air).

Example:

About Place:

Taj Mahal

foto untuk Descriptive Text taj mahal
pict by pexel

Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. It was built by a Muslim Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his dear wife at Agra. 

Taj Mahal is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it.

The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.

Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration.

Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river.

Jatim Park

foto untuk Descriptive Text jatim park
pict by nahwatour.com

For people in East Java, Jatim Park may have been heard many times as it is one of the famous tourism object in East Java province. Jatim Park offers a recreation place as well as a study center. Jatim Park is located at Jl. Kartika 2 Batu, East Java. To reach the location is not too difficult because the object is only 2, 5 kilos meters from Batu city. This Jatim Park tourism object is about 22 hectares width.

Visitor can enjoy at least 36 kinds of facilities which can attract them as well as give new knowledge. Just after the pass gate, the visitors will find an interesting view of ‘Galeri Nusantara’ area. This study offering continues to step on ‘Taman Sejarah’ area, which contains of miniature temple in East Java like Sumberawan temple, customhouse of Kiai Hasan Besari Ponorogo and Sumberawan Statue.

The other facility which is able to be enjoyed is ‘Agro Park’ area. It presents crop and rareness fruits, animal diorama which consists of unique animals that have been conserved, and supporting games like bowling, throw ball, scooter disco, etc

Jatim Park is suitable for family and school recreation. The recreation area sites offer precious tour and can used as alternative media of study.

About Animal:

My Cat Gregory

foto untuk my cat gregory
pict by pexel

Gregory is my beautiful gray Persian cat. He walks with pride and grace, performing a dance of disdain as he slowly lifts and lowers each paw with the delicacy of a ballet dancer. His pride, however, does not extend to his appearance, for he spends most of his time indoors watching television and growing fat.

He enjoys TV commercials, especially those for Meow Mix and 9 Lives. His familiarity with cat food commercials has led him to reject generic brands of cat food in favor of only the most expensive brands.

Gregory is as finicky about visitors as he is about what he eats, befriending some and repelling others. He may snuggle up against your ankle, begging to be petted, or he may imitate a skunk and stain your favorite trousers.

Gregory does not do this to establish his territory, as many cat experts think, but to humiliate me because he is jealous of my friends.

After my guests have fled, I look at the old fleabag snoozing and smiling to himself in front of the television set, and I have to forgive him for his obnoxious, but endearing, habits.

Well, I think that is the best example of descriptive text. However if you think it is not the example you want, I have the other examples about descriptive text in this list below.

If you agree that the above sample is a very good descriptive text about animal then let’s continue to analyze the generic structure.

My Rabbit

foto untuk Descriptive Text my rabbit
pict by pexel

I have a rabbit. His fur is white and has black spots. He has long ears and a short tail. He also has cute red big eyes! My rabbit likes to eat carrot and other vegetables.

When I release my rabbit out of his cage, he used to jump everywhere and hard to catch. So, I could just put him on his cage because I’m afraid that he might running away. I don’t wanna lost my rabbit because I love him very much.

Read More : Belajar Grammar dengan Mengenal 16 Tenses

About People

Mark Zuckerberg

foto untuk Descriptive Text mark zuckerberg
pict by timemagazine

Mark Elliot Zuckerberg is an American computer programmer & internet entrepreneur. He is a co-founder of Facebook, a famous social media. His name was in the list of 100 wealthiest and most influential people since 2010 by Time Magazine.

About his physical appearance, Mark’s body is 170 centimeters tall with 76 kilograms weight. His hair color is red while his eyes are blue. Mark Zuckerberg was born on 14th May 1984 in New York, USA. Therefore, he is 35 years old by 2019. Mark Zuckerberg has married to Priscilla Chan; they have one daughter named Maxima Chan Zuckerberg.

Bill Gates

foto untuk Descriptive Text Bill Gates
pict by Kompasiana

William Henry “Bill” Gates III is one of the richest & influential people. In 1975 together with his friend, Paul Allen, he co-founded Microsoft which became the world’s largest PC software company. That is why his name exists in the list of world’s wealthiest people by Forbes.

Bill Gates or Trey as his nickname was born on 28th October 1955 in Seattle, Washington, USA. By 2019, he is 64 years old. His hair as well as eye color is same, light brown. Bill Gates’ weight is 64 kilograms with 177 centimeters height. With his wife named Melinda Gates, they have three children.

Besides being the best-known entrepreneur, Bill Gates is also known as a philanthropist. In 2000, he & his wife created Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. It was identified as the world’s wealthiest charitable foundation in 2013. Through this foundation, Bill Gates donates large amounts of money to many charitable organizations and scientific research programs.

Read More : Belajar Grammar dengan Mengenal 16 Tenses

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